Endocrine gland diagram labeled diagram base website diagram
In order to survive, animals must constantly adapt to changes in the environment. The nervous and endocrine systems both work together to bring about this adaptation.
In general the nervous system responds rapidly to short-term changes by sending electrical impulses along nerves and the endocrine system brings about longer-term adaptations by sending out chemical messengers called hormones into the blood stream. In general Endocrine system is represented by a set of heterogeneous structure and origin of formations capable of internal secretion, ie the release of biologically active substances hormones that flow directly into the bloodstream.
For example, think about what happens when a male and female cat meet under your bedroom window at night. The initial response of both cats may include spitting, fighting and spine tingling yowling - all brought about by the nervous system. Fear and stress then activates the adrenal glands to secrete the hormone adrenaline which increases the heart and respiratory rates.
If mating occurs, other hormones stimulate the release of ova from the ovary of the female and a range of different hormones maintains pregnancy, delivery of the kittens and lactation. The most primitive endocrine systems seem to be those of the neurosecretory type, in which the nervous system either secretes neurohormones hormones that act on, or are secreted by, nervous tissue directly into the circulation or stores them in neurohemal organs neurons whose endings directly contact blood vessels, allowing neurohormones to be secreted into the circulationfrom which they are released in large amounts as needed.
True endocrine glands probably evolved later in the evolutionary history of the animal kingdom as separate, hormone-secreting structures. Some of the cells of these endocrine glands are derived from nerve cells that migrated during the process of evolution from the nervous system to various locations in the body.
These independent endocrine glands have been described only in arthropods where neurohormones are still the dominant type of endocrine messenger and in vertebrates where they are best developed. It has become obvious that many of the hormones previously ascribed only to vertebrates are secreted by invertebrates as well for example, the pancreatic hormone insulin. Likewise, many invertebrate hormones have been discovered in the tissues of vertebrates, including those of humans.
Some of these molecules are even synthesized and employed as chemical regulators, similar to hormones in higher animals, by unicellular animals and plants. Thus, the history of endocrinologic regulators has ancient beginnings, and the major changes that took place during evolution would seem to centre around the uses to which these molecules were put. Vertebrates phylum Vertebrata are separable into at least seven discrete classes that represent evolutionary groupings of related animals with common features.
Endocrine Glands Diagram Picture
The class Agnatha, or the jawless fishes, is the most primitive group. Class Chondrichthyes and class Osteichthyes are jawed fishes that had their origins, millions of years ago, with the Agnatha. The Chondrichthyes are the cartilaginous fishes, such as sharks and rays, while the Osteichthyes are the bony fishes.
Familiar bony fishes such as goldfish, trout, and bass are members of the most advanced subgroup of bony fishes, the teleosts, which developed lungs and first invaded land. From the teleosts evolved the class Amphibia, which includes frogs and toads.
The amphibians gave rise to the class Reptilia, which became more adapted to land and diverged along several evolutionary lines. Among the groups descending from the primitive reptiles were turtles, dinosaurs, crocodilians alligators, crocodilessnakes, and lizards.
Birds class Aves and mammals class Mammalia later evolved from separate groups of reptiles.
Amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, collectively, are referred to as the tetrapod four-footed vertebrates. The human endocrine system is the product of millions of years of evolution. By examining these animals it is possible to document the emergence of the hypothalamic-pituitary-target organ axis, as well as many other endocrine glands, during the evolution of fishes that preceded the origin of terrestrial vertebrates.
The hypothalamic-pituitary-target organ axes of all vertebrates are similar. The hypothalamic neurosecretory system is poorly developed in the most primitive of the living Agnatha vertebrates, the hagfishes, but all of the basic rudiments are present in the closely related lampreys.
In most of the more advanced jawed fishes there are several well-developed neurosecretory centres nuclei in the hypothalamus that produce neurohormones. These centers become more clearly defined and increase in the number of distinct nuclei as amphibians and reptiles are examined, and they are as extensive in birds as they are in mammals.
Some of the same neurohormones that are found in humans have been identified in nonmammals, and these neurohormones produce similar effects on cells of the pituitary as described above for mammals. Two or more neurohormonal peptides with chemical and biologic properties similar to those of mammalian oxytocin and vasopressin are secreted by the vertebrate hypothalamus except in Agnatha fishes, which produce only one. The oxytocin-like peptide is usually isotocin most fishes or mesotocin amphibians, reptiles, and birds.
The second peptide is arginine vasotocin, which is found in all nonmammalian vertebrates as well as in fetal mammals. Chemically, vasotocin is a hybrid of oxytocin and vasopressin, and it appears to have the biologic properties of both oxytocin which stimulates contraction of muscles of the reproductive tract, thus playing a role in egg-laying or birth and vasopressin with either diuretic or antidiuretic properties.
The functions of the oxytocin-like substances in non-mammals are unknown. The production and release of these tropic hormones are controlled by neurohormones from the hypothalamus.Learn about our expanded patient care options for your health care needs.
The endocrine system is a complex network of glands and organs.
Diagram of the Human Endocrine System (Infographic)
The following are integral parts of the endocrine system:. Pineal body. The pineal body is located below the corpus callosum, in the middle of the brain. It produces the hormone melatonin, which helps the body know when it's time to sleep.
The pituitary gland is located below the brain. Usually no larger than a pea, the gland controls many functions of the other endocrine glands. Thyroid and parathyroid. The thyroid gland and parathyroid glands are located in front of the neck, below the larynx voice box.
The thyroid plays an important role in the body's metabolism. The parathyroid glands play an important role in the regulation of the body's calcium balance. The thymus is located in the upper part of the chest and produces white blood cells that fight infections and destroy abnormal cells.
Adrenal gland. An adrenal gland is located on top of each kidney.
Like many glands, the adrenal glands work hand-in-hand with the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The adrenal glands make and release corticosteroid hormones and epinephrine that maintain blood pressure and regulate metabolism. The pancreas is located across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach.
The pancreas plays a role in digestion, as well as hormone production. Hormones produced by the pancreas include insulin and glucagon, which regulate levels of blood sugar.Join group, and play Just play. This is an online quiz called Endocrine System - Glands. A shoutout is a way to let people know of a game. Pick an audience - or yourself - and it'll end up in their play queue. PurposeGames lets you create and play games.
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Are you smarter than a 5th grader? Canadian Provinces Quiz 13p Image Quiz.In the human body, there are five vital organs that people need to stay alive. These are also a number of other organs that work together with these vital organs to ensure that the body is functioning well. Keep reading to learn more about the organs of the body, the various organ systems, and some guidelines on how to maintain optimum health. The interactive body map below shows the organs of the body and which systems they play a role in.
Click on the map to learn more. The vital organs are those that a person needs to survive. A problem with any of these organs can quickly become life threatening. It is not possible to live without these organs. That said, in the case of the paired kidneys and lungs, a person can live without one of the pair. It forms the core of the central nervous system by creating, sending, and processing nerve impulses, thoughts, emotions, physical sensations, and more.
Neurologists are doctors who study the nervous system. Over time, they have identified numerous parts of the brain, including systems within the brain that function similarly to independent organs. The brain is made up of three main subparts: the cerebrum, the cerebellumand the brainstem.Mobile rewards apk
Within these areas, there are several key components of the brain that, together with the spinal cord, comprise the central nervous system. The major areas of the central nervous system include :.My dog has cancer how long will she live
The corpus callosum connects these two hemispheres. The heart is the most important organ of the circulatory system, which helps deliver blood to the body. It works with the lungs to add oxygen to blood and pump this freshly oxygenated blood through the blood vessels and around the body.
The heart also has an electrical system within.Ewe osain pdf
Electrical impulses within the heart help ensure that it beats with a consistent rhythm and proper rate. The heart rate increases when the body needs more blood, such as during intense exercise. It decreases during times of rest. The heart has four chambers. The two upper chambers are called atria, and the two lower chambers are called ventricles.We know what is the brain, we also know what it looks like but How does it work?
How does it convert a whim into an electric signal? If these are the questions swirling in your brain, then this article detailing the diagram of the brain and its functions will definitely whet your appetite regarding brain functions and parts.
Of all the human body systems, the nervous system is the most complicated system in the body. The brain is the central part of the nervous system. It is an intriguing organ, that has been studied right from the time it develops in the fetus. The human brain weighs about 1. The cerebrum, which forms the bulk of this organ, is divided into two hemispheres, the right hemisphere and the left hemisphere.
Each hemisphere of the brain interacts with one half of the body, but for unknown reasons, it is the right side that controls the left half of the body and the left half controls the right half of the body. In most respects, the left and the right sides of the brain are symmetrical. However, there is one major difference, in most people, the left hemisphere is more involved in language and creativeness, while the right side is more involved in understanding and judgment. Although in brain functions, left and right hemispheres have the same essential role, the left is often solely attributed with personality and the right solely with intelligence.
However, there is no concrete scientific proof to back this claim.
Endocrine System Overview
Would you like to write for us? Well, we're looking for good writers who want to spread the word. Get in touch with us and we'll talk There are many ways of dividing the brain for studying its various aspects. However, it is conventionally divided into three parts: the forebrain, the midbrain and the hindbrain. The brain also contains four interconnected cavities called ventricles, which contain cerebrospinal fluid.
We will study the diagram of the brain and its functions in this article, along with a detailed study of the brain anatomy. The forebrain is further divided into telencephalon and diencephalon. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. Any kind of trauma or lesion in the cerebrum can lead to various diseases and disorders and mental illnesses.
The cerebrum is divided into two cerebral hemispheres by the medial longitudinal fissure. These two hemispheres are connected to each other by a fibrous band of nerves called the corpus callosum.
The cortex of each hemisphere is divided into four lobes — the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe and the occipital lobe. The cerebral cortex is highly convoluted in its structure, which increases the area available for the neurons. The ridges present on the surface of the cortex are called gyri, whereas the grooves or fissures separating them are called sulci. Important sulci of the cerebrum include the central or Rolandic sulcus, the lateral or Sylvian sulcus, the parieto-occipital sulcus and the Calcarine sulcus.
These sulci help to divide the cerebrum into its four lobes.Discover the whisky confidential campaign by label 5
Given below is a diagram of brain, its functions, detailing the four lobes and their associated structures. This is the part of the cerebrum that lies directly below the frontal bone. It is the part that is present directly behind the forehead. It is separated from the parietal lobe by the central sulcus, and from the temporal lobe by the lateral sulcus.
The frontal lobe is divided into a lateral, polar, orbital and medial part. The frontal lobe is seen in the above diagram; and its functions are described below. The parietal lobe is that lobe that is present superior to the occipital lobe and posterior to the frontal lobe. It is enclosed by the parietal bone of the skull.The endocrine system is a network of glands and organs located throughout the body. However, while the nervous system uses nerve impulses and neurotransmitters for communication, the endocrine system uses chemical messengers called hormones.
Keep reading to discover more about the endocrine system, what it does, and the hormones it produces. The endocrine system is responsible for regulating a range of bodily functions through the release of hormones. Hormones are secreted by the glands of the endocrine system, traveling through the bloodstream to various organs and tissues in the body.
The hormones then tell these organs and tissues what to do or how to function. The endocrine system is made up of a complex network of glandswhich are organs that secrete substances. The glands of the endocrine system are where hormones are produced, stored, and released.
Each gland produces one or more hormones, which go on to target specific organs and tissues in the body. Some endocrine glands also have non-endocrine functions. For example, the ovaries and testes produce hormones, but they also have the non-endocrine function of producing eggs and spermrespectively.
Hormones are the chemicals the endocrine system uses to send messages to organs and tissue throughout the body. Once released into the bloodstream, they travel to their target organ or tissue, which has receptors that recognize and react to the hormone. Sometimes, hormone levels can be too high or too low.
When this happens, it can have a number of effects on your health. Hyperthyroidism happens when your thyroid gland makes more thyroid hormone than necessary.
This can be caused by a range of things, including autoimmune conditions. Treatment depends on how severe the condition is, as well as its underlying cause. Options include medications, radioiodine therapy, or surgery. Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder and common form of hyperthyroidism. In people with Graves disease, the immune system attacks the thyroid, which causes it to produce more thyroid hormone than normal. Like hyperthyroidism, it has many potential causes.How to remove pulsator of washing machine
Cushing syndrome happens due to high levels of the hormone cortisol. Treatment depends on the cause of the condition and can include medications, radiation therapy, or surgery.
Some symptoms of Addison disease include:. People with diabetes have too much glucose in their blood high blood sugar. There are two types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Treatment for diabetes can include blood sugar monitoringinsulin therapyand medications.
Lifestyle changes, such as getting regular exercise and eating a balanced diet, can also help. The endocrine system is a complex collection of glands and organs that helps to regulate various bodily functions. This is accomplished through the release of hormones, or chemical messengers produced by the endocrine system. Hormones are a crucial part of your overall health.The endocrine system consists of glands that are found all over the body, which help you to produce hormones.
This article provides detailed information about the endocrine system. The endocrine system is a collection of glands that secrete various chemicals called hormones.
These are messages that pass signals through the blood to a targeted organ. The receptor cells recognize these messages and act accordingly.How to draw human endocrine glands labelled diagram - Endocrine glands labelled diagram
Hormones are divided into three classes based on their structure:. The steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol after a series of biochemical reactions.
They pass through the bloodstream, and are not stored by cells. The production of this hormone depends on the rate of synthesis. The peptide hormones are synthesized as precursor molecules. Endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies process these chemicals that are stored in secretory granules, which further help in their secretion into the blood stream, as and when the body demands it.
The amine hormones are stored in the cytoplasm as granules till needed. Would you like to write for us? Well, we're looking for good writers who want to spread the word. Get in touch with us and we'll talk There are over 20 major hormones that are pumped into the bloodstream directly by the endocrine system glands. This system organs consists of the following glands in human begins:.
Antidiuretic hormone vasopressin Helps the kidneys to retain water, and controls blood pressure in the presence of aldosterone. Human growth hormone Regulates growth and development, and promotes protein production.
Luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormone Controls reproductive functions that includes the production of sperm and semen, egg maturation, and menstruation. It also regulates male and female sexual characteristics that includes hair distribution, muscle formation, skin texture and thickness, voice, and may even control personality traits. Oxytocin It causes muscles of the uterus and milk ducts in the breasts to contract.
Prolactin It starts and maintains milk production in the mammary glands. Thyroid-stimulating hormone It controls the stimulation, production, and secretion of hormones of the thyroid gland.
Parathyroid hormone It regulates the formation of bones and excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Calcitonin Its function is still unclear, but in other species, it regulates calcium balance. Aldosterone It helps in regulation of salt and water balance by their retention and excretion of potassium.
Cortisol It has widespread effects in the whole body. It mainly causes anti-inflammatory action, maintaining blood sugar level, blood pressure, and muscle strength. It also helps to control salt and water balance.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine This chemical stimulates the heart, lungs, blood vessels, and nervous system. Insulin This chemical helps in lowering the blood sugar level, and affects the metabolism of sugar, protein, and fat throughout the body. Estrogen It helps in the development of female sex characteristics and the reproductive system. Progesterone Prepares the lining of the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg, and readies the mammary glands to secrete milk.
Testosterone It controls the development of sexual characteristics in men and the reproductive system. Cholecystokinin It controls the gallbladder contractions that cause the bile to enter the intestine, and stimulates release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas.
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