Xml illegal characters

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Brandie Tarvin. More actions. I've learned that any character not on the "legal" list is illegal, which is good. Unfortunately, the only references to the "legal" list I find, I can't interpret. But how do I interpret x1- xD7FF? What characters are these? Is there an actual legal XML character list in Or is there a T-SQL shortcut for translating that list so I can see what characters those references mean?

I ask because I need to manually go through my expected data to find this illegal character, which is a bit difficult if I don't know what I'm looking for. Adrian Nichols From what I can gather the x???? I currently can't think of a better way of checking for the illegal character than looping through each one in turn and checking that it's hex value falls within those hex references above?!?

A Freudian Slip is when you say one thing and mean your mother. For detail-enriched answers, ask detail-enriched questions Matt Miller 4. At that point pretty much anything goes All right - what was my emergency again? One of my coworkers found the issue by pulling the fields into a XML datatype variable. It was a hidden character with some bizarre value that we'd never seen before. Lowell -- help us help you! Paul Bradshaw.

Unfortunately, that function didn't help in this instance, as it only made things far worse since it messed up all the XML by replacing all the angle brackets, etc. I'm having this same issue as the OP of this thread I cannot find the "problem character" at all. I'm pulling my hair out here It's rehydrated by C code just fine. If it told me the Nth character position from the beginning and the actual character or character code that it was choking on, that would help.

EDIT: Worse I have no idea what to do now. The data is stored in an image column as a varchar string not my design, not something I can change. I pull it out, converting it to varchar, into a varchar string. Or even indirectly by putting it into a varchar max variable and then trying to convert that to assign to an xml variable. So have you tried creating a temp table or another perm table with a varchar column and shoving the string in there?

Then selecting from that into the XML datatype? Shot in the dark here You say that SQL Server is complaining about an error in your XML on a line that doesn't appear to exist, but maybe it actually does exist. You might try looking at the source data in a binary editor instead of a text editor if you can. If it does have a NULL Then you'll have to escape it somehow, but I'm not sure exactly how you're going to accomplish that.

If it were me and it was an option, I'd go back to whomever is giving me the data and ask them to encode the data in a format that's more XML friendly e.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time.

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Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. If you use an appropriate class or library, they will do the escaping for you.

xml illegal characters

Many XML issues are caused by string concatenation. The safe way is to escape all five characters in text. The safe way is to escape all five characters in attributes. HTML has its own set of escape codes which cover a lot more characters. In SGML, HTML and XML documents, the logical constructs known as character data and attribute values consist of sequences of characters, in which each character can manifest directly representing itselfor can be represented by a series of characters called a character reference, of which there are two types: a numeric character reference and a character entity reference.

According to the specifications of the World Wide Web Consortium w3Cthere are 5 characters that must not appear in their literal form in an XML documentexcept when used as markup delimiters or within a comment, a processing instruction, or a CDATA section. In all the other cases, these characters must be replaced either using the corresponding entity or the numeric reference according to the following table:. From Character Data and Markup :. Esoterica 0.

Abridged from: XML, Escaping. Most of the control characters and other Unicode ranges are specifically excluded, meaning I think they can't occur either escaped or direct:.

Valid characters in XML. It depends on the context. Learn more. What characters do I need to escape in XML documents? Ask Question. Asked 10 years, 9 months ago. Active 2 months ago. Viewed k times. What characters must be escaped in XML documents, or where could I find such a list? Julius A Julius A Active Oldest Votes.

XML Tutorial 19 XML Document Special Characters

Text The safe way is to escape all five characters in text. Peter Mortensen Welbog Welbog 53k 8 8 gold badges silver badges bronze badges.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time.

Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I have a string that contains invalid XML characters. IsXmlChar method. It was added since. NET Framework 4 and is presented in Silverlight too. Here is the small sample:.

xml illegal characters

EncodeName method. Update: It should be mentioned that the encoding operation produces a string with a length which is greater or equal than a length of a source string. It might be important when you store a encoded string in a database in a string column with length limitation and validate source string length in your app to fit data column limitation.

Use SecurityElement. If you are writing xml, just use the classes provided by the framework to create the xml. You won't have to bother with escaping or anything. If you need to read an XML file that is malformed, do not use regular expression.

Instead, use the Html Agility Pack. To test it, use the following example:. This returns an empty string but it shouldn't! Here is an optimized version of the above method RemoveInvalidXmlChars which doesn't create a new array on every call, thus stressing the GC unnecessarily:. A word character is any letter, decimal digit, or punctuation connector such as an underscore.

Any character that matches this pattern is replaced by String.This article explains the meaning of this rule and provides a C method that locates any illegal characters. To begin with, the following lists the range of valid XML characters. Any character not in the range is not allowed. The left angle bracket and the ampersand may appear in the content of CDATA but only in their literal form, not in their escaped form. Certain other characters are commonly referred to as being illegal XML characters and this has led to some misunderstanding.

Since there are accepted uses for these two characters, they are not strictly speaking illegal XML characters. The less than and ampersand characters are two of the five pre-defined XML entities. The other three being the greater than symbol, the quote and the apostrophe, each of which are allowed in XML content without being expressed in entity notation.

XML processors are required to convert the pre-defined entites to their character representation without being defined anywhere in the XML document.

1. Invalid characters

Now that the meaning of what characters are illegal in XML has been clarified, let's move on to handling illegal characters when they do occur in an XML document. A Google search for "remove illegal XML characters" results in plenty of code snippets.

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While most that I looked at appear to work, they all pass an XML string to a function that checks if the string contains an illegal XML character. That is fine for small XML documents, but for large documents I always read the file byte by byte which is orders of magnitude faster. Two C methods appear below.

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They are designed to be called from an application that reads the XML document using a FileStream object and sequentially reads chunks of the file into a byte array. The first method is IllegalChars and has three parameters: a byte array, the index in the array where an ampersand occurs and a boolean value indicating if the XML file is unicode. It is called when the application reading the byte array encounters an ampersand.

When IllegalChars returns, the calling method can take appropriate action, such as reporting the problem or replacing the illegal character with a legal string, such as an underscore.

Invalid Characters and Escape Rules

Not included is code that detects an illegal occurence of either the less than symbol or the ampersand. The reason is that they can only be accurately detected using a fully compliant XML parser. The second method, IllegalByte, has one parameter, currentByte, the integer value of the byte justread by the FileStream object.

This method checks if currentByte is within the range of allowed XML character values and returns zero if it is. If it is not a legal character, the value of one is returned and the calling program can take action appropriate to the application.

Xponent LLC. All rights reserved.Your support for our advertisers helps cover the cost of hosting, research, and maintenance of this FAQ. See the question on non-Latin characters for a longer explanation. Apart from the invisible ASCII control characters the ones you can't typeall other characters are just normal text. If you are using a Schema, you must use the numeric form for all except the five below because Schemas have no way to make character entity declarations.

If you use XML with no DTD, then the five character entities listed at the top of this question are assumed to be predeclared, and you can use them without declaring them separately indeed, most software prevents you redeclaring them :. The double-quote character " can be symbolised with this character entity reference when you need to embed a double-quote inside a string which is already double-quoted. The apostrophe or single-quote character ' can be symbolised with this character entity reference when you need to embed a single-quote or apostrophe inside a string which is already single-quoted.

xml illegal characters

If you are using a DTD then you must declare all character entities you need to use, so it would be good practice also to declare any of the five above that you plan on using. If you are using a Schema, you must use the numeric form for all except the five above because Schemas have no way to make character entity declarations.

Most control characters are prohibited in XML: see the Specification for exact details. There are also no reserved words as such in the user namespace of XML: you can call an element element and an attribute attribute and so on as in the following perverse example:. Twitter LinkedIn Phone Email.

xml illegal characters

Your support for our advertisers helps cover the cost of hosting, research, and maintenance of this FAQ Previous. Check Legal Notices for details.Although XML 1. The entitized form is also potentially better aligned with future versions of the XML standard.

Additionally, it makes debugging simpler, because the code point of the invalid character becomes visible.

List of XML and HTML character entity references

For users of XML tools, no workaround is required, because the XML parser will fail either way at the point where the invalid characters occur in the data stream. If you use non-XML tools, this change can require you to update your programming logic to search for these characters as entitized values.

The following white space characters are entitized differently in FOR XML queries to preserve their presence through round-tripping:. SQL Server names that contain characters that are invalid in XML names, such as spaces, are translated into XML names in a way in which the invalid characters are translated into escaped numeric entity encoding. Because the colon is already reserved for namespaces, the underscore is chosen as the escape character. Following are the escape rules that are used for encoding:.

The underscore character does not have to be escaped unless it is followed by the character x. For example, the following query generates a namespace attribute that has a colon in the name:. You may also leave feedback directly on GitHub.

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Skip to main content. Exit focus mode. The following white space characters are entitized differently in FOR XML queries to preserve their presence through round-tripping: In element content and attributes: hex 0D carriage return In attribute content: hex 09 tabhex 0A line feed These characters are preserved in output, and a parser will not normalize them.

Escape Rules SQL Server names that contain characters that are invalid in XML names, such as spaces, are translated into XML names in a way in which the invalid characters are translated into escaped numeric entity encoding. Yes No. Any additional feedback? Skip Submit. Send feedback about This product This page.

This page. Submit feedback. There are no open issues. View on GitHub. Is this page helpful?By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information.

Really, though, you should use a tool or library that writes XML for you and abstracts this kind of thing away for you so you don't have to worry about it. The characters described here are all the characters that are allowed to be inserted in an XML document. Basically, the control characters and characters out of the Unicode ranges are not allowed. It can also be noticed that all parsers do not always take this into account and XML documents with control characters may be rejected.

It is not mandatory -- it depends on the context -- but it is strongly advised to escape it.

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The list of valid characters is in the XML specification :. This is a C code to remove the XML invalid characters from a string and return a new valid string. See " What are the special characters in XML? In that case you can use all characters in the following range :. If there are still invalid characters e. IsXmlChar Available since. NET Framework 4. In Cuse System. Escape or System. HtmlEncode to escape these illegal characters. For Java folks, Apache has a utility class StringEscapeUtils that has a helper method escapeXml which can be used for escaping characters in a string using XML entities.

Source from here. Anyone tried this System. Escape yourstring? This will replace invalid XML characters in a string with their valid equivalent. It's a sloppy fix, beware Learn more. Asked 11 years ago. Active 4 months ago. Viewed k times.

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Can someone point me in the direction of one or provide me with a list of illegal characters? RailsSon RailsSon Active Oldest Votes. Wai Ha Lee 7, 14 14 gold badges 47 47 silver badges 72 72 bronze badges. Welbog Welbog 53k 8 8 gold badges silver badges bronze badges. Some controls characters are also not allowed. See my answer below. Actually that's not quite true.

A number of lower ascii characters are invalid also.


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